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European nations are often thought of as culturally homogenous. Yet over 200 national minorities are recognised by the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages. Clearly the picture is more complicated than meets the eye. This misconception can be problematic when it comes to heritage, since all heritage ‘belongs to someone and logically, therefore, not to someone else’ (Graham, Ashworth & Tunbridge 2000). These ‘someones’ and ‘someone elses’, and the interplay between them, are what we’re focusing on in this project through the lens of intangible cultural heritage (ICH). ICH is one way that minority cultures express their distinct identities. It describes a culture’s traditions rather than its monuments: from language to music, from dancing to food, it is the ‘traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants’ (UNESCO). Alongside these expressions of minority culture are narratives of how a minority culture is seen from the outside, such as in literature, television, or tourism marketing. Sometimes, these narratives are at odds with the way the culture is lived by the people it belongs to. And the situation is further complicated because, in a European context, there is often no clear divide between who does and doesn’t belong to a particular cultural group. Minority-majority is a spectrum, not a binary. Those born in a region (and who thus may have a more ‘legitimate’ claim to that identity) may leave, while in-comers move into the region and embed themselves to greater or lesser extents into the cultural communities they find there.